China Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan
Organized by State Environmental Protection Administration of China
The government of China has always adopted an active attitude towards formulating the national strategy and action plan for biodiversity conservation. As early as 1987, the Committee of Environmental Protection under the State Council issued ˇ°China Program for Nature Conservationˇ±. This program mainly touched upon issues of conservation of ecosystems and species. In 1991 when the negotiation on CBD was on-going, NEPA applied to GEF for assistance with the formulation of ˇ°China Biodiversity Conservation Action Planˇ±, which was also supported by UNDP and the World Bank. This project was initiated in 1992. Its implementation was headed by NEPA with participation of State Planning Commission, State Science and Technology Commission, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Construction, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Sciences and State Oceanic Administration. After two years of work, this project was completed in 1993. China officially launched this action plan in June, 1994.
1 Main Objectives and Actions in Action Plan
According to its obligations under CBD and the present and future needs for conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity, this plan proposed the objectives for seven areas and 26 action options. According to the importance, urgency and practical operability of conservation, eighteen priority projects for immediate implementation have been identified.
(1) Objective To Strengthen Fundamental Studies on Biodiversity
Action 1 To conduct a comprehensive assessment of the current situation and economic value of biodiversity in China;
Action 2 To establish a biological geographical zoning system for biodiversity conservation.
(2) Objective To improve the network of national nature reserves and other protected areas
Action 3 To examine comprehensively the distribution and current status of nature reserves so as to assess the representation and effectiveness of the national system of nature reserves;
Action 4 To adopt measures to strengthen conservation capacity of existing nature reserves;
Action 5 To establish new nature reserves in areas in urgent need of biodiversity conservation, to select locations for nature reserves for forest, grassland, wetland, fresh water, marine ecosystems and wild relatives of crops and domesticated animals.
(3) Objective To protect wild species significant to biodiversity
Action 6 To assess the current status of species in nature reserves, including hunting and other threatening factors;
Action 7 To identify the priority for conservation of wild species according to the importance of biodiversity and their degree of being threatened;
Action 8 To conduct a survey on trade of wild animals and plants;
Action 9 To examine facilities for ex-situ conservation of animals and plants and the effectiveness of protection of priority species;
Action 10 To formulate the plan for conservation of various species according to the comprehensive analysis of ex-situ and in-situ conservation measures, taking into consideration various limits for returning to nature those species bred in ex-situ conservation facilities;
Action 11 To improve the ex-situ management of protected species;
Action 12 To conduct science and technology research to support the implementation of actions recommended in Objective.
(4) Objective To protect the genetic resources of crops and domesticated animals
Action 13 To protect the genetic resources of crops, grass for grazing and vegetables;
Action 14 To protect the genetic resources of domesticated animals;
Action 15 To protect the genetic resources of timber trees.
(5) Objective In-situ Conservation Outside Nature Reserves
Action 16 To incorporate biodiversity conservation into the national economic plan;
Action 17 To adopt timber business measures favorable to biodiversity conservation;
Action 18 To promote eco-farming measures;
Action 19 To protect main vegetation or habitats outside nature reserves and prohibit or control strictly the exploitation of meadows and wetland;
Action 20 To protect the coast and marine environment.
(6) Objective To establish the national network of biodiversity information and monitoring
Action 21 To unify information standard and monitoring techniques;
Action 22 To improve and establish departmental networks of information and monitoring;
Action 23 To establish the national system of information and monitoring by involving relevant departmental networks for biodiversity conservation in China.
(7) Objective To coordinate biodiversity conservation with sustainable development
Action 24 To establish areas for both exploitation and conservation of biodiversity;
Action 25 To set up regional economic models for coordinating the conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity;
Action 26 To undertake demonstration of establishment and management of nature reserve
2 Priority Protected Ecosystems Identified in Action Plan
Priority protected areas in the forest ecosystem: 80 nature reserves in 27 important regions, among which there are 11 in tropical regions, 55 in subtropical regions and 14 in temperate regions;
Important protected areas in the grassland and desert ecosystems: 24 nature reserves, among which there are 6 with international significance and 18 with domestic significance;
Important protected areas in the wetland and water ecosystems: 29 nature reserves, among which there are 16 with international significance and 13 with domestic significance;
Important protected areas in the marine and coastal ecosystems: 23 nature reserves, among which there are 7 for the marine and island ecosystem, 4 for coral reef ecosystem, 7 for estuary ecosystem and 5 for mangrove ecosystem..
3 Priority Protected Species Identified in Action Plan
79 species of mammals, among which there are 60 with international significance and 19 with domestic significance;
287 species of birds, among which there are 58 for priority protected and 229 endemic protected species;
12 reptiles, among which there are 4 under first-class protection and 8 under second-class protection;
5 amphibians, among which there are 3 under first-class protection and 2 under second-class protection;
28 fishes, among which there are 10 under first-class protection, 11 under second-class protection and 7 under third-class protection;
38 insects, among which there are 2 under first-class protection, 11 under second-class protection and 25 key protected butterflies;
16 marine invertebrates, out of which 2 under first-class protection, 12 under second-class protection and 2 for third-class protection;
151 plants, out of which 6 pteridophyte, 17 gymnosperm plants and 128 angiosperm;
9 domesticated animals including 19 varieties;
18 sites for remaining wild relatives of crop plants, including 15 wild relatives of crops.