By the end of 1995, China had 4,900 hydropower stations with a generating capacity of 500 KW or more each. If the generating capacity of some small and medium-sized hydropower stations built by local governments is included, China's annual hydropower energy production was second largest in the world, exceeded only by Brazil. By the end of 1996 hydropower stations built or being built with a generating capacity of one million KW or more included: Gezhouba, Baishan, Longyangxia, Liujiaxia, Geheyan, Wanjiazhai, Ertan, Wuqiangxi, Tianshengqiao First Step, Tianshengqiao Second Step, Yantan, Tianhuangping, Shuikou, Manwan, Dachaoshan, Waterfall Valley on Dadu River, Qingjiang Step, Geheyan and Lijiaxia hydropower stations.
Introduction to Hydropower Stations
Wanjiazhai Key Water Control Project
The project is on a tributary of the Yellow River to the northwest of Pianguan County, Shanxi Province, and construction started in 1993. It is one of the key water conservancy projects constructed for the Eighth Five-Year Plan period. The Wanjiazhai Key Water Control Project will have a total installed generating capacity of 1.08 million KW and requires the pouring of more than 1.7 million cubic meters of concrete. There will be six generating units. After completion the project will be able to generate 2.75 billion KWH of electricity. The first generating unit with a capacity of 180,000 KW came into operation and joined the electricity grid in November 28, 1998.
Fengman Hydropower Station
The first of the larger hydropower stations in northeast China, this station is 24 kilometers from Jilin on the upper reaches of the No. 2 Songhua River and 250 kilometers away from the Baishan Hydropower Station. Fengman Hydropower Station controls a drainage area of 42,500 square kilometers. As well as generating power and preventing floods, the dam supplies water for irrigation, industrial production, domestic use and the cultivation of aquatic products. Fengman Reservoir, also known as Songhua Lake, is 180 kilometers long and has a surface area of 550 square kilometers. The deepest section is 75 meters and the storage capacity is 10.8 billion cubic meters. The station has a concrete heavy-pressure dam with the powerhouse in front of the dam, a switch room and flood discharge tunnels. The dam is 1,080 meters long and the highest section is 91 meters. The top of the dam is 266.5 meters above sea level. On top of the dam is a 1.2-meter-high wave prevention wall. The powerhouse is on the right bank of the river in front of the dam. It is equipped with 10 turbo-generator units and one turbo-generator unit for the station, with a total installed generating capacity of 809,000 KW. The spillway dam is to the left of the main dam and has 11 spillway tunnels, with a flood discharge capacity of up to 9,240 cubic meters per second. The flood discharge tunnel is on the left bank of the main dam. The tunnel is 682.9 meters long and nine meters in diameter with a discharge capacity of up to 1,186 cubic meters per second. The main dam is built to reduce flood risk to once every 1,000 years. The normal water level is 263.5 meters above sea level and at 261 meters the reservoir has a storage capacity of 2.67 billion cubic meters when hit by a flood. The storage capacity for generating power is 5.35 billion cubic meters.
Baishan Hydropower Station
On the No. 2 Songhua River and at Huadian, Jilin Province, the Baishan Hydropower Station is the largest in the northeast grid. It has an installed generating capacity of 1.5 million KW. Construction of the station started in May 1975 and it began storing water on September 16, 1982. At the end of 1984, three generating units with a total generating capacity of 900,000 KW came into operation for the first phase of the project. Another two with an installed generating capacity of 600,000 KW for the second phase of the project began operating in June, 1992.
The station controls a drainage area of 19,000 square kilometers. In addition to generating power the station controls floods and has other benefits. It consists of a 149.5-meter-high concrete heavy-pressure dam, a weir with four 12 X 13 meter tunnels on top of the 404-meter-high spillway dam, three 6 X 7 meter tunnels for discharging water are 350 meters high, an underground powerhouse with an installed generating capacity of 900,000 KW and another powerhouse on the surface with an installed generating capacity of 600,000 KW. The dam is 423.5 meters high and the reservoir has a storage capacity of 6.812 billion cubic meters. Its highest normal storage water level is 413 meters. The capacity for water control storage is 3.54 billion cubic meters while the flood control storage capacity is 950 million cubic meters.
The Step Hydropower Stations on Songjiang River
The Step Hydropower Stations on Songjiang River are at the foot of the Changbai Mountain in south Jilin Province and Wusong County on the upper reaches of the No. 2 Songhua River. They are one of the key national and provincial construction projects of the Eighth Five-Year Plan period. The project uses the rich water resources of the Changbai Mountain areas and diverts water from the Manjiang and Sandao Songjiang Rivers in Wusong County to the Songjiang River. The project includes three step hydropower stations in Xiaoshan, Shanggou and Shilong and the Songshan and Sandiao Songjiang water diversion works on the Songjiang River. These power stations have an installed generating capacity of 510,000 KW. Annual energy production is 831 million KWH. The dynamic investment is 1.67 billion yuan. Construction of the Xiaoshan Hydropower Station, the first at the foot of the Changbai Mountain, started in July 1994. By December 1997, the second generating unit with an installed capacity of 80,000 KW had joined the grid.
Lianhua Hydropower Station
Situated at Lianhua Township, Linkou County, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang Province, the station is the first large modern water conservancy project in Heilongjiang Province. The station has four 137,500-KW generating units and cost 4.7 billion yuan; more than 40,000 people had to be resettled. Construction started in November 1992. The first generating unit came into operation and joined the local grid in December 1996. Another three became operational in September 28, 1998.
Tianhuangping Hydropower Station
One of the key national construction projects, the station is in Anji County, Zhejiang Province. It is a pump-storage power station with the largest storage capacity and highest head in the country; it consists of two reservoirs. The elevation of the upper reservoir on Tianhuang Mountain is 900 meters while the lower reservoir is on the Xitiao Stream in the Taihu Lake drainage area. Their storage capacities are 8.85 million cubic meters and 8.77 million cubic meters respectively. The highest head for generating power is 607.5 meters. The heads of the two reservoirs average 570 meters and the headrace tunnels average 1,428 meters in length. Total installed generating capacity is 1.8 million KW. Each year, generation capacity is 3.16 billion KWH and the efficiency is 75 percent. Funding for the station, which comes from Shanghai Municipality, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Anhui provinces and the East China Power Group Co., amounts to 7.118 billion yuan. The project introduced a system of bidding for contracts and new ways of supervision and management during the construction period.
Construction of the main part started on March 1, 1994, and is expected to end in June 2000, lasting eight years.
Construction of the upper reservoir started in December 1993 and was completed in October 1997. On September 30, 1998, the first generating unit with a generating capacity of 300,000 KW became operational and joined the local grid.
Dongjin Hydropower Station
The station was built with funds from central and local governments and is at Dongjin Township, Xiushui County, Jiangxi Province. It is one of the key construction projects in the province. In the first half of 1995, two 30,000-KW generating units came into operation.
Shuikou Hydropower Station
At the end of 1996 this station was the largest of its kind in east China. It is near Xiapu Village, Minqing County, Fujian Province and is on the middle reaches of the Minjiang River. Apart from generating power, it can be used for navigation and flood control. The station was built with a loan from the World Bank and was the first to attract funds through international bidding. There are seven generating units with an installed generating capacity of 1.4 million KW. The capacity of the No. 3 generating unit is 200,000 KW and until 1996 it was made by China and was the largest axis turbo-generator in the world. Construction started in May 1986 and it was completed in November 1996 when the station joined the local grid. Yearly generating capacity averages 4.95 billion KW.
Shangyuan Reservoir Power Station
The Shangyuan Reservoir Power Station near Panxi Town, Fuding County, Fujian Province, west of Tailao Mountain, is one of the 34 large and medium-sized construction projects carried out in province during the Eighth Five-Year Plan period. The construction plan was approved by the State Planning Commission and the Ministry of Water Resources on October 29, 1991. Construction of infrastructure facilities such as power, gas and water supply began on February 18, 1992, and work on the power station started on June 16, 1992; the first generating unit became operational on June 16, 1995. Cost of the project amounted to 168 million yuan.
As well as generating power, the station provides water for irrigation, water supplies and acts as a flood control. There are four main sections to the station: a dual arch 84.2-meter-high dam; a 6,011-meter intake tunnel, 3.8 meters in diameter; a 578-meter pressure steel pipe, 2.2 meters in diameter; the powerhouse, and the 31-kilometers 110-volt transmission line and one supporting project. It has a storage capacity of 73.5 million cubic meters and the power station produces electricity from three 12,500-KW generating units giving an annual output of 108 million KWH.
Central and South China
Qingjiang Step Power Stations
Qingjiang River, the longest tributary of the Yangtze River, is in Hubei Province and is 423 kilometers long. With development its drainage area is capable of generating 3.29 million KW or 11.5 billion KWH a year, which would account for two-thirds of the province's total. In 1987 the Qingjiang Hydropower Development Co. was established with approval of the provincial government. The company planned to build three step power stations at Gaobazhou, Geheyan and Shuibuya during the next 15 years. These stations could provide 3 million KW to the central China area in an emergency. Annual production would be 10 billion KWH. They would also be effective in controlling 15,000 cubic meters of floodwater per second and make Enshi accessible to 300-ton ships from the Yangtze River.
Geheyan Hydropower Station
Built with funds from the central and provincial governments during the Eighth Five-Year Plan period, the Geheyan Hydropower Station in Changyang County, Yichang, Hubei Province, is a key water resource and power project. The station consists of a dam, a powerhouse and lifting machines. The dam is a heavy-pressure dam and the storage capacity is 3.4 billion cubic meters. The four generating units installed have a capacity of 1.211 million KW. The station is the first phase in the Qingjiang Step Power Stations Project.
Construction started in December 1986, and it was completed in December 1994. By the end of May 1996, the power station had generated 6 billion KWH of electricity and earned 1.8 billion yuan. On July 4, 1996, the station successfully raised the sluices to discharge 940 million cubic meters of floodwater.
The station introduced the system where the owner is responsible for its operation, the first time in the country.
Gezhouba Hydropower Plant
Gezhouba Hydropower Plant plays an important role in the central China grid and is the key connection between the central China grid and east China grid. The plant has 21 domestic turbo-generating units with a total generating capacity of 2.715 million KW. Fourteen generating units are installed in the Dajiang Power Station producing 1.75 million KW and there are seven in the Erjiang Power Plant giving an output of 965,000 KW. Annually the plant produces 15.7 billion KWH of electrical energy. In 1981 the first generating unit came on line and by the end of October 1997 it had produced 200 billion KWH of electricity valued at 16 billion yuan. The plant has supplied 2.1 billion yuan for the construction fund of the Three Gorges Project and has remained ahead of its counterparts in productivity for 14 consecutive years.
Gaobazhou Hydropower Station
This is the lowest dam of the three step power stations on the Qingjiang River and is in Zhicheng, Hubei Province. It is 50 kilometers from the Geheyan Hydropower Station on the upper section of the river, 12 kilometers from the juncture of the Yangtze and Qingjiang Rivers and 45 kilometers from the Gezhouba Hydropower Station. The station will consist of a concrete heavy-pressure dam with facilities for navigation and a riverbed powerhouse. The dam will be 439.5 meters long, 57 meters high and will store rainwater from a 15,650-square-kilometers catchment area. Storage capacity will be 536 million cubic meters. The station will have three 84,000-KW generating units, which will provide 898 million KWH of electricity annually. Navigation facilities include a vertical 300-ton boatlift, the same as that at the Geheyan Hydropower Station. The designed one-way boat passage capacity per year is 1.733 million tons.
Time for the construction of the first generator unit is four years and that for the whole station is six years. The station will provide electricity three years after construction began and all generator units will be installed in five years. The flow was blocked for the first-phase project in October 1996 and for the second-phase project in October 1998. The first generator unit is expected to provide electricity in October 1999 and other two will come into operation in 2000. Construction of the station is expected to end in 2001 and the project entails moving 3.78 million cubic meters of earth and 1.95 million cubic meters of back filling as well as pouring 1.023 million cubic meters of concrete. In all 1,546 hectares of land (including 1,090 hectares of cultivated fields) will be submerged and 15,736 people will have to be resettled. Its dynamic investment totals 3.076 billion yuan.
Wuqiangxi Hydropower Station
This is one of the key national construction projects and is the largest water conservancy project of Hunan Province. It has many functions such as power generation and flood control and plays a role in navigation.
The station is situated in Yuanling County, Hunan Province, on the lower reaches of Yuanshui River, and is equipped with five 240,000-KW turbo-generator units with an installed generating capacity of 1.2 million KW. It provides 5.37 billion KWH of electricity annually, one-fifth of the province's total. The storage capacity of its reservoir is 4.27 billion cubic meters. The station required 7 billion yuan investment from the central and local governments and a low-interest loan of 25.09 billion Japanese yen from the Overseas Economic Cooperative Fund of Japan. The project introduced the system where the owner is responsible for its operation, tendering for contracts and a supervision and management system by chief manager. The construction was restored with approval of the central government in 1986 and in December 1994, the first generating unit began operating and joined the local grid. In December 1996, the other four came into operation.
Zhexi Hydropower Station
The station is situated 10 kilometers west of Anhua county seat in Hunan Province and is equipped with six turbo-generator units; it has a generating capacity of 447,500 KW. After an update, the station increased this to 500,000 KW. It is one of the large hydropower stations in the province.
Dongjiang Hydropower Station
One of the national key construction projects during the Seventh Five-Year Plan period, the Dongjiang Hydropower Station was built in 11 years. It is the first dual arched thin dam designed and constructed by China, the second of its kind in the world and the first in Asia. On August 2, 1986, the station began to store water. The reservoir has a water surface of 160 square kilometers and a storage capacity of 8.12 billion cubic meters, about half that of Dongting Lake. The reservoir area has been developed into an economic area with forestry and fruit and tea growing, supplemented by a fishery, navigation and tourism.
Yantan Hydropower Station
Located on the middle reaches of Hongshui River, the Yantan Hydropower Station is one of the key national construction projects and also an important part of the Hongshui River Step Power Project. It is the first large hydropower station in the province with a generating capacity of more than one million KW.
In the first phase of the project four generating units with a generating capacity of 1.21 million KW were installed to produce 5.3 billion KWH of electricity a year. The dam is 525 meters long and 110 meters high. The construction of its main body started in 1985, and the river was blocked in 1988. The first generating unit began to supply electricity to the local grid in 1992. The other three were installed and put into operation in June 1995, and began to generate electricity for the local grid in June 1996. The project cost 3.532 billion yuan in total.
Zhaoping Hydropower Station
The station was a key construction project in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. It became operational and joined the Wuzhou area grid on April 8, 1994. The station is equipped with three generating units, which have a total installed generating capacity of 63,000 KW to give 304.5 million KWH of electricity annually. Its static investment is 125 million yuan.
Bailongtan Hydropower Station
This station in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region is the seventh of the 10-step hydropower stations on Hongshui River. It has an installed generating capacity of 192,000 KW and is the first in the country that functions automatically. The construction of the main body started in February 1993, and the river flow was blocked on December 4, 1995.
Hemianshi Hydropower Station
Hemianshi Station in Xindu Town of Hexian County, Guangxi, generates electricity, supplies water for irrigation and has facilities for navigation. The construction started in January 1970, and the first generating unit began to produce for the local grid in September 1974. In October 1976 all its four generating units started working. The installed generating capacity is 68,000 KW, and the station can provide 360 million KWH of electricity a year. The storage capacity is 296 million cubic meters, and the regulated storage capacity is 112 million cubic meters. Water can irrigate a total of 6,867 hectares of farmland.
Yemao Hydropower Station
This is a key construction project in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Located in Yizhou, it is the sixth of the step hydropower stations on Longjiang River. Guangxi Hydropower Engineering Bureau approved the contract for the construction of the station on June 23, 1992. The first generating unit started to supply the local grid in January 1996.
Its dam is 462.58 meters long and 34.7 meter high. The station is equipped with three 12,500-KW generating units, which provide 187.5 million KWH of electricity annually. The station cost 166 million yuan, which came from both central and local governments.
Taipingyi Hydropower Station
The Taipingyi Hydropower Station on the upper reaches of Minjiang River, Aba Prefecture, Sichuan Province, is equipped with four 65,000-KW generating units. The total investment amounted to 1.45 billion yuan, of which the Huaneng Group Co., the Aba prefecture government and the former State Energy Investment Co. contributed 50 percent, 40 percent and 10 percent respectively. The station has introduced a system where the legal entity is responsible for its construction and operation. The construction of the station started in 1991, and the No. 1 generating unit joined the local grid on November 7, 1994.
Ertan Hydropower Station
This is the second step hydropower station on the lower reaches of Yalong River and is situated in Panzhihua at the borders of Miyi and Yanbian counties, Sichuan Province. It has an installed capacity of generating 3.3 million KW and can provide 17.035 billion KWH of electricity annually. Its dam is 240 meters high. It is one of the main power stations in the Sichuan grid and the second largest next to the Three Gorges Project.
Preparatory work started in October 1978, after the project was approved by the State Council in 1987. The construction of the main part started on September 14, 1991, and the river was blocked in November 1993. The first generating unit came into operation in October 1998, and the whole project is expected to be completed in 2000.
Its 240-meter-high dam, the first of the kind in the country, is the third highest in the world and the second highest in Asia. After the station is completed, the reservoir will have a storage capacity of 5.8 billion cubic meters and the water surface will cover 10,100 hectares.
The station has six 550,000-KW turbo-generating units and when they are all operating the value of the electricity production will increase by 80 billion yuan. The station will be the second most important water conservancy and power-generating project after the Three Gorges Project.
The total investment for the Ertan Hydropower Station is 33 billion yuan, of which 24.369 billion yuan are collected domestically from the State Development and Investment Co., Sichuan Provincial Investment Co., and Sichuan Provincial Power Co. Foreign funds amount to US$930 million, of which US$780 million is the loans from the World Bank and the other US$150 million from financial consortiums. It is the largest loan the World Bank has ever granted to for a single construction project since its founding. The whole project is constructed through bidding in accordance with international practices.
The electrical transmission project is a supplementary project of the station. It consists of 500-KV transmission lines, 500-KV substations and controller and a 220-KV supporting project. The whole project needs a total investment of 12.9 billion yuan including a loan of US$273 million from the World Bank. The 500-KV transmission line is 2,097 kilometers long and includes a three-loop line from Ertan to Zigong (a single loop measures 470 kilometers long), a two-loop line on same tower from Zigong to Chengdu (a single loop measures 190 kilometers long), the second-loop line from Zigong to Chongqing for 162 kilometers long, the single-loop line from Chongqing to Changshou for 100 kilometers long and the single-loop line from Ertan to Panzhihua for 20 kilometers long. Substations include Zhaoju controller in Liangshan, Honggou Substation in Zhigong, Longwang Substation in Chengdu, Chengjiaqiao Substation in Chongqing, Changshou Substation and Panzhihua Substation. Their transforming capacity totals 5.25 million KVA. The 220-KV supporting line is 1,340 kilometers long with a transforming capacity of 3.38 million KVA.
Ertan Hydropower Station is the largest constructed in China in this century. On August 11, 1998, its first 550,000-KW generating unit began operating and joined the local grid; the second one started on December 1, 1998, some 21 months earlier than scheduled.
Daqiao Reservoir Hydropower Station
Daqiao Reservoir lies in Mianning County, Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province, is the key project in the first phase of the development of water resources in the Anning River drainage area, and is also one of the most important infrastructure facilities built in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture during the Eighth Five-Year Plan period.
The reservoir has a 91-meter-high reinforced concrete masonry dam. The normal storage level is 2,020 meters above sea level and its total storage capacity is 658 million cubic meters while the readjusted storage capacity is 593 million cubic meters.
The reservoir's station has an installed generating capacity of 90 megawatts providing 350 million KWH of electricity annually. The station's static investment is 419.53 million yuan and the project is expected to be completed in four years and three months. The first group of generating units began operating in June 1997.
Gongzui Hydropower Plant
The plant is situated at Shawan Town, Leshan, Sichuan Province, and has Gongzui and Tongjiezi hydropower stations under its administration giving a total installed generating capacity of 1.3 million KW and a designed annual output of electricity of 6.628 billion KWH.
There are seven 100,000-KW generating units in the station designed to produce 3.4178 billion KWH of electricity each year. Its construction started in 1966, and the first generating unit started to operate in December 1971. By the end of 1978 all the generating units were put into operation. Tongjiezi Hydropower Station has four 150,000-KW generating units with an annual output of 3.21 billion KWH. Its construction started in March 1985 and the first generating unit began to supply the local grid in October 1992. All the generating units were put into operation in December 1994.
By the end of October 1997, Gongzui Hydropower Power Plant had provided a total of 84.698 billion KWH and its output value was 5.756 billion yuan.
Pobugou Hydropower Station on Dadu River
Pobugou Hydropower Station stands on the upper reaches of the Tongjiezi and Gongzui hydropower stations along the Dadu River. It is another huge hydropower stations in Sichuan Province. It has an installed generating capacity of 3.3 million KW, and the reservoir has a storage capacity of 5.177 billion cubic meters, which can be readjusted according to the season. The masonry dam is 186 meters high and the underground powerhouse is 290 meters long, 32 meters wide and 69 meters high. The initial design was approved on June 25, 1994. It is about of the same size with the Ertan Hydropower Station but has better all-round economic results. Since it has a large storage and better adjusting ability, it can improve the generating efficiency of the Gongzui and Tongjiezi power stations.
Shilongba Hydropower Station
The first hydropower station in the country, it is located southwest of Dianchi Lake and 45 kilometers from Kunming. Its construction started in July 1910, and it began producing electric power in September 1912. The station is installed with two 375-HP machines. The total price of the machines, plus parts, was 300,000 DM. Two engineers were invited from the Siemens Electric Factory of Germany to carry out the survey, construction of the powerhouse, installation of the machines and wiring for the lighting.
In 1957 Zhu De, then Chairman of the NPC Central Committee, inspected the station. In 1990, Li Peng, former Premier of the State Council, and Qian Zhengying, Vice-Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, and other state leaders wrote inscriptions for the station.
Manwan Hydropower Station
Another huge hydropower stations constructed since the Seventh Five-Year Plan period, it has a generating capacity of more than one million KW. The Manwan Station in Yunnan Province is on the middle reaches of the Lancang River and at borders of Yunxian and Jingdong counties. It was the first large hydropower station on the Lancang River equipped with six 250,000-KW generating units, with a total installed generating capacity of 1.5 million KW. Its annual production of electricity is 7.795 billion KWH. The station is the first project used funds from both local and central governments. The construction of its main part started on May 1, 1986.
The first two generating units were put into operation in 1993 to add 4 million KWH of electricity to the Yunnan grid. On June 27, 1994 the third unit joined the grid and the fourth went into operation on December 20 same year. The fifth began to provide power on June 25, 1995. This completed the first phase of the project, and it was checked and accepted by the government on December 20, 1998.
Dachaoshan Hydropower Station
It is located in western Yunnan Province at the borders of Yuxian and Jingdong counties. The station is the second one-million-KW hydropower station on Lancang River after the Manwan Hydropower Station. It is also the first huge hydropower station funded by enterprises in China.
The station's designed generating capacity is 1.35 million KW. In the early years after completion, its annual output will be 5.9 billion KWH but the figure will finally reach 7.021 billion KWH.
The station's dam is 118 meters high and 481 meters long on its top. Its storage capacity is 890 million cubic meters. During construction a total of 800 hectares of land were submerged and 6,100 local people were resettled. The estimated investment is 8.87 billion yuan, and the project is being built through bidding and tendering for contracts. The construction began on December 28, 1993, and the diversion tunnels were completed on May 15, 1996. The river flow was blocked on November 10, 1997. The first generating unit is expected to provide electricity in 2001. The whole station will be completed and put into operation in 2003. The station will be the first in China to combine construction with management but to separate the control of grid from electricity generating.
Dongfeng Hydropower Station on Wujiang River
Dongfeng Station is one of the key national projects and the second large power station on the Wujiang River after Dushui Hydropower Station was completed. Dongfeng Station is located in a soluble stone canyon, eight kilometers down from the confluence of Liuchong and Sancha rivers, both tributaries of Wujiang River. Its total installed generating capacity is 510,000 KW and the annual output of electricity can reach 2.42 billion KWH. The project was administered by the Wujiang Development Co. of Guizhou, designed by the Guiyang and Zhongnan hydropower survey and design institutes under the Ministry of the Power Industry and constructed by the No. 9 Hydropower Bureau. The work began in October 1984; the construction of the main part was started in 1989; the whole project was completed and went into operation on December 31, 1995.
Tianshengqiao Second-Step Hydropower Station on Nanpan River
Designed by the Guiyang Hydropower Survey and Design Institute, it is the largest diversion-type station in China. Its total installed generating capacity is 1.32 million KW, and the first generating unit started working on December 20, 1992.
Its three 9.56-kilometer-long intake tunnels with an inner diameter of 8.7-9.8 meters are the largest underground projects in the country. The side slope of the powerhouse area is 380 meters high, a major research achievement by the Ministry of Power Industry, which won the ministry's second prize for scientific and technological progress. The dam was the first to use new technology of rolling and pressing concrete.
Tianshengqiao First-Step Hydropower Station was also a key national projects, with a total installed generating capacity of 1.2 million KW and an annual output of electricity of 5.226 billion KWH. After completion, it can effectively balance the flows between the dry and flood seasons and help increase the output of 8.839 billion KWH by the Tianshen Second-Step Hydropower Station, the Yantan, Dahua and other hydropower stations below it. After approval by the central government, the work started in 1991, and the construction of the main part began on December 26, 1994.
Lubuge Hydropower Station
Lubuge Station is on Huangni River where Yunnan and Guizhou provinces border with Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. It generates 600,000 KW of electricity. The installation of its four turbo-generating units started at the end of 1988, and they were brought into operation in June 1991. The masonry dam is 103.8 meters high and the reservoir has a storage capacity of 111 million cubic meters. The diversion system consists of a 9,387-meter pressure tunnel and two 470-meter pressure steel pipes.
Tanghe Hydropower Station
Tanghe Station is on Tanghe River, a large tributary of Yarlung Zangbo River. It is 47 kilometers from Xigaze and has an installed generating capacity of 6,400 KW. Until 1996 it was the largest in Xigaze area of Tibet. The construction lasted for 10 years, and it began to operate in 1980.
In 1995 a project to upgrade it was listed as one of the 62 aid projects to Tibet, and the work began the same year with an investment of 73.5 million yuan from Shandong Province. The upgrade was completed in July 1996. It has a 415,000-cubic-meter reservoir. Its annual output of electricity has thus been increased to 34.73 million KWH.
Yanghu Hydropower Station
On the northern slope of Himalaya Mountains and south of Yarlung Zangbo River, the station is located 80 kilometers from Lhasa at an elevation of 4,440.5 meters. Its reservoir covers an area of 620 square kilometers with a storage capacity of 15 billion cubic meters.
Survey and design work started in 1973, and the construction was approved by the central government in 1985. In August 1989, the Party Central Committee and the State Council decided to restart the construction of this pump storage power station. The station is equipped with four generating units (including a reserve one) with a total installed generating capacity of 112,500 KW. The project cost 1.5 billion yuan. The construction of the main section started in July 1991, and the first generating unit was successful in trial operation on September 3, 1995 and was put into a trial run in July 1997. On September 19 the same year, all the four units went into full operation. The construction of the station was completed on September 19, 1998. A ceremony was held to unveil a monument with an inscription by Jiang Zemin, the General Secretary of the Party Central Committee. Jiang Zemin wrote dated July 25, 1990: "Building Yanghu Hydropower Station and bringing benefit to the Tibetan people."
The station has a head of 840 meters and an intake tunnel 5,600 meters long. In 1997 it led the country in elevation, water head and the length of intake tunnel. It is the largest and the most advanced power station in Tibet and supplies electricity to Lhasa, Lhaze and central Tibetan grids.
Woka River First-Step Hydropower Station
Situated in Sangri County, Tibet, Woka River Station is a power station with a low dam. The installed generating capacity will be 20,000 KW. Water comes from two head projects and the intake tunnels consist of main and tributary tunnels; their total length will be 6,593 meters. There will be five water transmission aqueducts, one back siphon and six floodwater aqueducts. Construction started in March 1996.
Zhalong Hydropower Station
This station is in Tibet, on Nagqu River on the upper reaches of Nujiang River in Nagqu County, Nagqu Prefecture of Tibet. It is 30 kilometers from Nagqu Town. The installed generating capacity is 10,800 KW and the powerhouse is in front of the dam. The project includes a masonry dam, spillway, tunnels, powerhouse as well as transmission and transfer facilities. The dam is 39 meters high with a maximum storage capacity of 140 million cubic meters. The adjusted storage capacity is 59 million cubic meters. In August, 1995, the No. 4 generating unit began supplying electricity. Soon afterwards the other three also went into operation.
Jaggang Hydropower Station
At an elevation of 4,751 meters this station, on Qiangtang Plateau in northern Tibet, was the highest hydropower station in the world by the end of 1997. Its first generating unit was put into operation in 1997, and the station was examined and accepted in September 1998.
Qingtongxia Hydropower Station
The Qingtongxia Station in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region is one of the step hydropower stations built on the upper reaches of Yellow River. Its heavy pressure concrete dam is 42.7 meters high and 697 meters long. It has an installed generating capacity of 272,000 KW.
Liujiaxia Hydropower Station
The construction of the Liujiaxia Station in Yongqing County of Gansu Province began in 1964, and its first generating unit started operation in 1969. All of its five units went into operation in 1974, with a total installed generating capacity of 1.22 million KW.
Yanguoxia Hydropower Station
This station, on the upper reaches of the Yellow River in Linxia of Gansu Province, was built mainly for power generation. Its construction started in 1958, and the first generating unit started operating in 1961, shortly before the station was fully completed. The dam is 57.2 meters high, 15.9 meters wide on the top and 321 meters long. Its storage capacity is 220 million cubic meters. A powerhouse in front of the dam is equipped with eight axial flow water turbines with a total installed generating capacity of 352,000 KW.
Daxia Hydropower Station
This hydropower station was built during the Eighth Five-Year Plan period and is the first of such projects in Gansu Province. It is at Xixiakou on Yellow River, 65 kilometers northeast of Lanzhou, Gansu Province. The central government approved the project in May 1991, and the construction started in October the same year. On December 8, 1996, the first generating unit with a generating capacity of 75,000 KW began supplying the local grid. The last generating unit joined the grid on June 16, 1998, six months ahead of schedule.
It is a riverbed low water-head power station, the 11th of the step hydropower stations on the section from Longyang Gorge to Qingtong Gorge. It is also the first project along the well-known Three Small Gorges consisting of Small Gorge, Big Gorge and Wujin Gorge. The station is equipped with four 75,000-KW generating units and one 24,500-KW axial-flow water turbine. The cost of the project was 2.5 billion yuan.
The station has introduced a three-in-one system of management whereby one department is responsible for management of project construction, supervision of project construction and management of operations. This gave an insight into new methods of managing hydropower stations and control over the quality of construction, costs and economic benefits. This station has increased the acreage under gravity irrigation by 8,667 hectares and has facilitated navigation as well.
Xuelongtan Hydropower Station
Located in Menyuan County of Qinghai Province, it is the first of the 13 step hydropower stations built to develop water resources of Datong River drainage area. It will have a total installed generating capacity of 20,000 KW, and its annual production of electricity will reach 110 million KWH. In scale, it is next to the Xiaogangou Hydropower Station and is the second largest hydropower station built and managed by the province. The station is one of the key construction projects in the province during the Eighth Five-Year Plan period. The construction started in May 1994. By September of the same year, 250,000 cubic meters of earth were dug and more than 280 meters of tunnels opened. The construction of an overflow dam, generation tunnels, diversion tunnels and a powerhouse has also commenced.
Nina Hydropower Station
This is one of the 13 large and medium-sized hydropower stations to be built on the upper reaches of Yellow River and the third step power station on the section from Longyang Gorge to Qingtong Gorge. Its installed generating capacity is 160,000 KW and the annual production of electricity is 736 million KWH. The investment totals 1.562 billion yuan. The first generating unit is expected to provide power by the end of 2000.
Lijiaxia Hydropower Station
This station is the second step hydropower station, after the Longyang Gorge Hydropower Station, on Yellow River and is one of the key construction projects in the Eighth Five-Year Plan period. It is located in Qinghai Province at the borders of Janca County and Hualong Autonomous County. It is the first large hydropower station to introduce a system of bidding and tendering for contract. The station plans to install five 400,000-KW turbo-generating units, leading its counterparts in single-unit generating capacity in 1997. The total installed generating capacity will be 2 million KW and its annual production of electricity will reach 5.9 billion KWH. In 1997 it was the largest and the most advanced hydropower station on Yellow River. The investment totals 5 billion yuan. In addition to power generation, it is also beneficial to flood control and irrigation. The dual-arch concrete dam is 165 meters high and 45 meters wide at the base. The reservoir will store 1.648 billion cubic meters of water.
The construction started in July 1987, and water was blocked and the diversion tunnels started operating in 1991. The main section was completed on November 10, 1998, and the whole project is expected to be finished in 1999.
New technology, such as movable cooling facilities, was used when the dam was poured.
On February 13, 1997 its first generating unit went into operation and the second on December 4 of the same year.
In the Lijiaxia Water Conservancy Project, a key project of the state, there were some serious hidden faults caused by a few builders circumventing the rules and regulations in the construction of infrastructure facilities. These faults were repaired or corrected by May 1998. Persons concerned are punished according to the law.
On May 26, 1998, the No. 3 turbo-generating unit came into operation and joined the local grid.
Dashankou Hydropower Station
This station is the largest of its kind in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and one of the key national and regional construction projects built during the Seventh and Eighth Five-Year Plan periods. Situated in Hejing County, Xinjiang, it is the first-phase project and the eighth step hydropower station in the Kaidu River drainage area, with an installed generating capacity of 80,000 KW. The total investment was 206.61 million yuan. The only station fully controlled by computers in Xinjiang, it produces electricity of 310 million KWH each year. The construction started in June 1985. Its first generating unit went into production on December 28, 1991, and the second began to work on April 9, 1992. The station was completed on December 25, 1992 when its third and fourth generating units joined the trial production. It has stood for the test of three frozen periods, floods and an earthquake of magnitude 5.4. It has passed the check and approval in November 1994. By October 28, 1994, it had provided 754 million KWH of electricity, and its industrial output has reached 59.53 million yuan. All the equipment, on average, has been used for 9,287.3 hours and the station has become one of the main suppliers of the grid of the Bayangol Mongol Autonomous Prefecture.